Coral reef biology in a changing environment. Ecological and physiological responses of subtropical and tropical marine communities to environmental stress. Understanding symbiosis of cnidarians with their associated endosymbiotic algae, endolithic and epilithic communities and the way this symbiosis changes under elevated seawater temperature, increased radiation and decreased pH. How will coral reef ecosystems change following a shift in the environmental conditions in which they developed as projected by climate change trajectories? How interactions between acute and chronic disturbances influence the integrity of our planet's richest marine environment?